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Sometimes figure skating fans don’t understand the differences between different jumps. After all, the movements have many similarities at first glance. And the jumps are the main components of solo and pairs ice skating performances. The only exceptions are considered to be ice dancing performances. Fans of this beautiful sport see precise and honed movements of skaters. Meanwhile, performance is a combination of complicated physical elements. 

Each jump in figure skating has an initial cost. It is often also called the base value of jump. The concept is the points the judges will assign to the performance of the movement. Judges may increase the cost for some additional actions. So, 5he jump with three turns is added to each element for a more realistic presentation. But what are the basics in ice skating? Let’s take a look at the six basic jumps that make each ice skating performance a true masterpiece. 


The toe loop is considered to be the easiest jump to perform in ice skating. The ease of execution is due to the rotation of the hip thrusts to the desired side, which adds a half-turn. The toe loop is also the most common movement in ice skating.

The first jump was performed by Bruce Mapes from America in 192. The emergence of the quadruple toe loop was a credit to an athlete from Canada. He did it in 1988. 

More often the loop is short, which distinguishes it from the Lutz. The simplest element begins with a front three inward. The skater moves on his left foot, heads forward and turns 180 degrees. He slides back in and pushes off with the teeth of his left skate without changing his footing. The athlete jumps on the right, turns around and lands. The last action and push is performed in a similar pose. 

The jump called flip is inferior to the toe loop. It resembles the triplet, but the approach is done differently. The repulsion is performed with the right skate toothed. The name “flip” is translated as “click”. The sound was heard by skaters in 1930 when performing a jump. Fourth flip was performed only in 2016 by the Japanese skater Sema Uno. Women have not yet been able to repeat the element. 

Lutz is one of the most difficult jumps in ice skating. It has similarities to the flip, but it is performed from the outside rib. This makes it difficult to swing to get off the ice. The athlete slides in an extended arc rather than a tee. At the end, he sags on one limb, rests his right prong on the ice, and jumps. The cost of the triple element is 6 points. 


The edge jumps are characterized by the skater pushing off with his supporting leg. It is on it that he rides on the ice. The easiest jump is the Salchow. It is performed with the left limb and combined with a swing of the right foot. Movement allows you to recognize the Salchow among the other elements. Figure skater lands on the flapping limb. He rides while jumping back.The pioneer was Ulrich Salchow in 1909. The jump was named after the famous Swedish figure skater. He was a multiple world and European champion.

While the skater performs the Rittberger jump, he or she uses the right leg. The skater moves backward outward and turns his face inside the circle. The left limb slides forward. The skater turns his body counterclockwise, but does not engage the support. He pushes off the right leg and lands on it. Ritterberg was first performed by Werner Rittberger in 1910. The athlete became a multiple winner of the championships. The skater was a silver medalist several times.

And the most  fascinating and difficult jump in ice skating is the Axel. The feature of the most difficult jump is considered to be the landing on the back. In the axel there is no whole number of turns. The skater moves forward and then backward. At the end, he turns around.

In conclusion, it is important to say that the jumps (edge jumps or toe jumps) are the most technically-challenging components in a performance of figure skater. They really exemplify the athletic prowess of the best figure skaters.

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